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Antioxidant Can Prevent Or Heal Cataracts And Other Degenerative Eye Disorders


Antioxidant Can Prevent Or Heal Cataracts And Other Degenerative Eye Disorders.

Argus II Prótese Retiniana


Terapia Genética-Retina


Terapia Genética-Retina


Several New Stem Cell Clinical Trials Poised to Begin in Two to Three Years By Dr. Steve Rose on July 12, 2013


Several New Stem Cell Clinical Trials Poised to Begin in Two to Three Years By Dr. Steve Rose on July 12, 2013 One of the more exciting aspects of FFB’s recent annual conference, VISIONS 2013, was the news on the clinical development of several emerging stem cell therapies. The field has picked up a lot of steam, with many new human studies of stem-cell treatments anticipated to begin in 2014 and 2015. What’s particularly noteworthy is that some of these trials will be for people with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) — a population not yet included in human stem-cell studies. Also, investigators will evaluate new types of cells and new, innovative approaches to implanting them. Here’s a review of three of the stem-cell clinical studies on the horizon: Riken Institute: Sheets of RPE Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells In June, the Japanese Health Ministry gave approval to the Riken Institute to launch a clinical trial of sheets of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The study is planned for 2014. The sheets will replace native RPE cells damaged by leaky blood vessels, which are the hallmark of wet AMD. RPE cells play a critical role in supporting photoreceptors, the cells that make vision possible. For the first time in a human study, the researchers will produce RPE cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) — stem cells derived by turning back the development clock on a small sample of skin taken from the patient. The stem cells are then coaxed forward to become RPE. Because the cells come from the patient, there’s less chance of immune rejection. David Gamm, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said that transplanting sheets of RPE cells — rather than injecting a bolus or a clump of cells — was likely to produce better results, because RPE cells naturally occur as a layer in the retina. He believes that sheets of cells have a better chance to integrate and function normally. By the way, Dr. Gamm, in collaboration with Dennis Clegg, Ph.D., of the University of California, Santa Barbara, is receiving Foundation funding to develop a patch of cells — comprised of photoreceptors and RPE cells — for treating retinal diseases. While his work is still a few years away from the clinic, it is very promising, because so many retinal diseases affect both of these cell types. UC Irvine: Retinal Progenitor Therapy for Reactivating the Retina Henry Klassen, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of California, Irvine, and a former recipient of a Foundation Career Development Award, is planning to launch a clinical trial of a stem-cell therapy for people with RP. He hopes to begin the study in late 2014 or early 2015. His treatment involves the transplantation of progenitor stem cells — cells that have partially developed into retinal cells. Based on results from his lab studies, he believes the progenitors will rescue and reactivate dormant cones in the retinas of people with early- and late-stage disease. Not only is Dr. Klassen an outstanding scientist, he’s resourceful and collaborative — qualities that will undoubtedly enhance his chances of success. He obtained a $17.3 million grant from the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine, a legislative initiative providing $3 billion in funding over 10 years for stem cell research in facilities throughout California. Dr. Klassen’s project was also accepted into the Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases (TRND) program established by the National Institutes of Health to speed the development of new treatments for rare and neglected diseases. TRND will provide him with specialized expertise and resources to help advance his efforts. ReNeuron: Retinal Progenitor Therapy for Replacing Lost Photoreceptors One of the more ambitious stem-cell treatments nearing human study is being developed by ReNeuron, a company from the United Kingdom. Its retinal progenitor treatment replaces photoreceptors lost to retinitis pigmentosa. When transplanted in the retina, ReNeuron researchers believe that the partially developed cells will mature into fully functional photoreceptors. The company hopes to launch a clinical trial, probably in the U.K., in the next year or two. Previously funded by the Foundation, Michael Young, Ph.D., of Schepens Eye Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, conducted much of the research making this treatment approach possible. His work included the development of a biodegradable scaffold for growing and organizing the cells prior to transplantation. The structure increases the chances of survival and integration of the therapeutic cells. But Wait — There’s More Fortunately, there are far too many promising stem-cell research efforts to cover in one post, so here are links to other retinal-disease projects: ACT Expands Clinical Trial of Stem-Cell-Derived Retinal Treatment Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Clinical Trial for Retinal Diseases Stem Cells, Inc. Launches Clinical Trial for Dry AMD Treatment Pictured, above: partially developed retinal tissue derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Courtesy of Dr. David Gamm. – See more at: http://www.blindness.org/blog/index.php/several-new-stem-cell-clinical-trials-poised-to-begin-in-two-to-three-years/#more-2660

VISIONS 2013: “más de 150 personas han recibido terapias génicas en la retina.” Martes, 2 de julio de 2013


VISIONS 2013: “más de 150 personas han recibido terapias génicas en la retina.” Martes, 2 de julio de 2013

Por El Dr. Steve Rose en 01 de julio de 2013

 

Dr Shannon BoyeTanto si eres un investigador como un  afectado por una enfermedad de la retina, al oír las últimas noticias de las primeras líneas de ensayos clínicos es una gran ventaja de la conferencia anual de la FFB. En el último día de VISIONS 2013, tuve el privilegio de moderar una actualización convincente en seis ensayos clínicos de terapia génica proporcionados por Shannon Boye, Ph.D., un desarrollador de la terapia genética en la Universidad de Florida, y Michel Michaelides, MD, un clínico-investigador en el Moorfields Eye Hospital en el Reino Unido.

Todos estos tratamientos emergentes fueron posibles gracias a la financiación de la Fundación

    • 1) Amaurosis congénita de Leber (LCA)

Dr. Boye informó que el ensayo clínico de terapia génica para las personas con LCA (RPE65 mutaciones) en el Hospital de Niños de Filadelfia (CHOP) ha pasado de la fase I / II a la Fase III. Esto pone la terapia a un paso hacia la aprobación de comercialización de la FDA (EE.UU.). 

En colaboración con la Universidad de Iowa, los investigadores van a tratar a las personas con una mejor visión que los del estudio I / II. Niños de tan sólo 8 años fueron tratados en el estudio de fase I / II. Ahora tratarán a niños de 3 años y además, los pacientes recibirán inyecciones en ambos ojos en el transcurso de una semana.

En la Fase I / II, el segundo ojo de aquellos pacientes fueron tratados varios meses después del primer ojo. Dieciocho personas recibirán el tratamiento de Fase III, y ocho recibirán una inyección de placebo. Al comparar el grupo de tratamiento con controles, los científicos tendrán una mejor idea de cómo el tratamiento beneficia el ojo.

    • 2) Choroideremia

Seis pacientes recibieron la terapia génica para choroideremia en un ensayo clínico de fase I / II en el Hospital John Radcliffe de la Universidad de Oxford, en el Reino Unido.

Hasta el momento, no ha habido acontecimientos adversos y algunas sugerencias de aumentos leves en la sensibilidad retiniana. 

Los investigadores comenzaron recientemente para el tratamiento de pacientes adicionales. El Dr. MICHAELIDES informó que una bomba de pie se utiliza para controlar cuidadosamente la presión causada por el líquido terapéutico inyectado debajo de la fóvea, la región central de la retina que es crítica para la visión y la hace frágil por la enfermedad.

Jean Bennett, MD, Ph.D., del CHOP, y Ian MacDonald, MD, de la Universidad de Alberta en Edmonton, planean lanzar sus propios estudios humanos de la terapia génica para choroideremia en un futuro próximo. Manténgase atento a las actualizaciones de sus esfuerzos. 

    • 3) Stargardt

Ensayo clínico de Oxford Biomedica  fase I / II de su terapia génica Stargen ™ está en curso en la Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) en Portland, Oregon, y el Centro Nacional d’Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts de París, Francia.

Doce personas han recibido el tratamiento, sin problemas de seguridad. Dr. Michaelides dijo que los investigadores están aumentando progresivamente la dosis y el tratamiento de los pacientes con una mejor visión.

    • 4) Retinitis pigmentaria autosómica recesiva (ARRP)

Como informó en mayo, en la reunión anual de la Asociación para la Investigación en Visión y Oftalmología (ARVO), la Fase I del estudio clínico de terapia génica para ARRP (mutaciones MERTK) avanza bien. En su día, el Dr. Boye dijo que los participantes en el estudio no han experimentado eventos adversos, y algunos han mostrado mejoras en la visión.

Mientras que el ensayo se encuentra todavía en una fase inicial, la noticia es alentadora. 

    • 5) Síndrome de Usher tipo 1B

También en marcha en OHSU, y pronto en el Centro Nacional d’Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, es otro ensayo clínico de Oxford Biomedica de la terapia génica para el síndrome de Usher tipo 1B (USH1B). Conocido como UshStat ™, el tratamiento ha sido seguro hasta ahora en cuatro pacientes. El Dr. Boye explicó que el gen defectuoso en USH1B afecta el movimiento de proteínas críticas entre los segmentos internos y externos de los fotorreceptores, que están conectados por una muy estrecha “carretera de un solo carril.” UshStat espera que pueda desatascar el tráfico por lo que los fotorreceptores pueden funcionar normalmente. Añadió que el tratamiento también se entrega a una capa de apoyo de células de la retina conocida como el epitelio pigmentario de la retina para reforzar el movimiento de los pigmentos que son importantes para la salud y la visión de la retina. 

    • 6) La degeneración macular relacionada con la edad húmeda (AMD)

Si bien hay tres tratamientos efectivos para la AMD húmeda – todos los cuales inhiben la pérdida de visión,-sellando vasos sanguíneos con fugas – que tienen que ser inyectado en el ojo sobre una base regular (con frecuencia mensual) para la vida del paciente. Sin embargo, como explicó el Dr. Michaelides, tres compañías diferentes – Oxford Biomedica, Avalancha Biotech y Genzyme – están desarrollando terapias de genes que funcionan de manera similar a los tratamientos existentes, pero están diseñados para requerir solamente una sola inyección para detener el crecimiento de vasos sanguíneos durante varios años. Si bien aún es temprano, ninguno de los estudios han informado de cualquier evento adverso hasta el momento.

Un dato final, más de 150 personas han recibido terapias génicas en la retina en estos estudios. 

Fuente: retinosispigmentaria.wordpress.com

Entrada publicada el Martes, 2 de julio de 2013 a las 13:58

Can DHA Save Your Vision?


Can DHA Save Your Vision?

Nov 29, 2012 09:52 am – Posted by Dr. Steve Rose

A fish dishIt’s hard to miss the media hubbub about the potential health benefits of the omega-3 fatty acid called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Research has suggested that DHA in your diet is good for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, neurological conditions, depression and a slew of other conditions and maladies, including those that affect the retina. You can get DHA from eating coldwater oceanic fish, such as salmon, tuna, herring and sardines, as well as from vegetarian sources, including walnuts and flax seed. Fish-oil and vegetarian DHA supplements are also available at most supermarkets and drug stores.

DHA’s Role in Health So why is DHA thought to be such a powerful nutrient? Before birth and during infancy, DHA plays an essential role in the development of the entire nervous system, including the brain and retinas. Early in life, we get DHA while in the womb, and later from breast milk. (Infant formula is often supplemented with DHA.)

As we develop and mature, we get DHA from our diet. It continues to be critical to the structure, function and health of all cells of the body — especially cells called neurons, which transmit electrical information to and from the brain.

So can DHA help save vision for people affected by retinal diseases? While much of the research is ongoing, there is evidence that it can for some conditions. In another year or two, we are likely to know more about its potential for doing so.

We do know that DHA is prevalent in the retina. In fact, our photoreceptors, the neuronal cells that make vision possible, have more DHA than any other cells in our body. We also know that healthy levels of DHA in photoreceptors maximize retinal function and protect against damage from bright light exposure and oxidative stress. The latter is increased in people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and virtually all other retinal degenerative diseases.

DHA for Retinitis Pigmentosa Dr. Eliot Berson, of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, was one of the first clinical researchers to prescribe DHA for a retinal disease. In 1993, he reported that vitamin A palmitate supplementation slowed vision loss in people with RP.

In subsequent studies, he found that eating coldwater fish rich in DHA boosted the vision-preserving effect of vitamin A palmitate. Information on Dr. Berson’s recommended treatment regimen, which also includes lutein supplementation, is available in a newly updated informational document posted on the Foundation’s website.

Drs. David Birch and Dennis Hoffman, clinical researchers at the Retina Foundation of the Southwest, are wrapping up a five-year clinical trial of DHA supplementation for people with X-linked RP. Results from that study should be available in 2013.

DHA for AMD and Autosomal Dominant Stargardt Disease There is also preliminary evidence that DHA may reduce the risk of vision loss from AMD. In the first age-related eye disease study (AREDS) conducted by the National Eye Institute, researchers saw a correlation in fish consumption with reduced risk of advanced AMD.

The second AREDS (AREDS2) is evaluating the effects of DHA — and a related omega-3 fatty acid called eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA (also abundant in coldwater fish) — on advanced AMD risk. Many scientists believe that the combination of DHA and EPA is more effective than DHA alone. Results from AREDS2 are expected in 2013. (Antioxidants were also part of the first AREDS and are being evaluated in AREDS2, but I will save that discussion for another blog post.)

And, last, Dr. Paul Bernstein, at the University of Utah, is conducting a clinical trial of DHA and EPA supplementation for people with autosomal dominant Stargardt disease, a form of juvenile macular degeneration caused by mutations in the gene ELOVL4. He plans to report results in 2013.

Consulting a Physician I’ve covered the major retina-related clinical studies and findings on DHA and EPA, but it isn’t an exhaustive list. Regardless of the disease, or other research reports out there, I urge anyone with a retinal disease to talk to his or her eye doctor before taking DHA and EPA supplements. The doctor can suggest optimal doses and, at the same time, ensure that they don’t interact with other medications a patient is taking.

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